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Giant blobs nestled deep in the Earth may influence everything from the structure of island chains to mass-extinction events

Posted on January 18, 2020 at 5:40 PM Comments comments (0)

Two continent-size blobs of hot — and possibly molten — rock can be found deep underground, about halfway to the center of the Earth, according to a new study. These curious structures — each of which is so large that it would be 100 times taller than Mount Everest — could be made up of materials that may shed light on how the Earth formed, the researchers said.

 

One of the blobs is located beneath the Pacific Ocean, and the other can be found beneath the Atlantic. These underground structures start where the Earth's mantle meets the core, but they send "plumes" up through the rock like a Lava Lamp, the researchers said.

 

Scientists now think these masses differ from the surrounding rock in more than just temperature. They're also "compositionally distinct," meaning they could contain materials not typically found in the rest of the Earth's mantle. Yet even some of the most basic information about the blobs is still a mystery

Scientists have observed the blobs for decades by monitoring seismic activity in the two regions. Different types of seismic waves travel at different speeds, depending on the type of rock the blobs are moving through. And by comparing the timing and delay of signals from multiple locations, seismologists can build models of what's going on in the Earth's interior.

 

The blobs are characterized by slower wave speeds, which suggests they are a different temperature from the rest of the Earth's mantle, the researchers said. But at some of the edges, normal wave speeds transition abruptly to low wave speeds. A pure temperature difference would result in a more gradual change, the scientists said, which suggests the blobs are likely made up of something different from what makes up their surroundings.

 

Because they're big and characterized by the slower wave speeds, the blobs have been called large low velocity provinces (LLVPs). And when the speed of one type of wave, shear waves, is even slower than would be expected, scientists call the areas large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). But beyond that, not much is known about the origin or composition of these strange rocky blobs.

 

"The LLSVPs are definitely there, but the terrible name they have been given reflects the fact that we don't really know what they are," Richard Carlson, a geochemist at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C., who wasn't involved with the new paper, wrote in an email to Live Science.

 

The Lava Lamp comparison is appropriate — except when this Lava Lamp blob reaches the top, it spills or explodes out of the Earth's surface, Garnero said.

 

If an especially large "superplume" of magma from one of these blobs were to make it to the surface, it would result in "massive eruptions where the lava will come out for millions of years at a time," Garnero said. There isn't much cause for alarm, though. "The next one could be on its way," he said, "but it could be a million years away."

 

Scientists aren't sure if the blobs are made of material from the Earth's crust or if the chemical difference dates back to the Earth's formation.

 

"If we understood these 'blobs' better, that would represent a huge step forward in understanding the deep workings of our planet," Wendy Mao, a geoscientist at Stanford University who was not involved with the new paper, wrote in an email to Live Science.

 

The new research was published online June 20 in the journal Nature Geoscience.

 

Original article on Live Science.


Earthquake Data Helps Scientists Discover Mountains Perhaps Bigger Than Everest Deep Inside Earth

Posted on January 18, 2020 at 5:35 PM Comments comments (0)

By Marco Margaritoff

 

Published February 19, 2019

 

Researchers used seismic data from Bolivia's 1994 earthquake to map out a boundary 410 miles beneath the surface — and made a huge discovery.

 

When children learn about the layers of our planet, the components are often simplified into three easily understandable parts: crust, mantle, and core. However, a new study published in Science this week has complicated that notion by suggesting that mountains perhaps bigger than Everest also lie deep inside Earth.

 

Princeton geophysicists Jessica Irving and Wenbo Wu worked alongside Sidao Ni from the Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics in China to analyze the seismic data of Bolivia’s massive 1994 earthquake to look at what lies beneath, Science Daily reported.

 

What they found were mountains situated on a layer 410 miles below the Earth’s surface.

 

The team’s preliminary name for this section between layers, which seems to have housed these mountain ridges and other topography all along, is “the 660-km boundary.”

 

For Irving, only earthquakes and their seismic shifts have provided scientists like her with the kind of data they need to encounter findings like these.

 

“You want a big, deep earthquake to get the whole planet to shake,” she said.

 

While the seismic data of smaller quakes can certainly be studied just as well, big ones produce 30 times more energy with every single step up on the Richter scale — allowing Bolivia’s disaster in 1994 to provide prime data for the Princeton team to wade through.

 

The most useful information Irving gets comes from earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.0 or higher, as those produce shockwaves that shoot across all directions and are capable of traveling through the earth’s core to the other side of the planet — and back.

 

The seismic data of larger, deeper quakes, “instead of frittering away their energy in the crust, can get the whole mantle going,” explained Irving.

 

With an 8.2 magnitude, Bolivia’s quake in 1994 was the second-biggest deep earthquake ever recorded, allowing the researchers to get as clear a look beneath the Earth as possible.

 

“Earthquakes this big don’t come along very often,” said Irving. “We’re lucky now that we have so many more seismometers than we did even 20 years ago. Seismology is a different field than it was 20 years ago, between instruments and computational resources.”

 

The researchers used Princeton’s Tiger supercomputer cluster, technology that allows one to simulate the complex behavior of waves scattering around deep beneath the surface.

 

The tool essentially graphs seismic data similar to how lightwaves are recorded reflecting or refracting off surfaces. In this case, it presents scientists with data about seismic waves and how they travel through rocks — or don’t. In other words, knowing where the path of these waves is obstructed can present a pretty clear, informative picture of the inaccessible landscape deep below the Earth.

 

“We know that most all objects have surface roughness and therefore scatter light,” said Wu, lead author of the study. “That’s why we can see these objects — the scattering waves carry the information about the surface’s roughness. In this study, we investigated scattered seismic waves traveling inside the Earth to constrain the roughness of the Earth’s 660-km boundary.”

 

What they discovered genuinely surprised them — the boundary had a surface layer far rougher than the one all of us on Earth live upon.

 

“In other words, stronger topography than the Rocky Mountains or the Appalachians is present at the 660-km boundary,” explained Wu.

 

While the team’s model couldn’t provide the precise heights of these subterranean structures, it’s likely that they far outmatch any mountains found on the Earth’s surface — a rather colossal discovery.

 

Another layer discovered at the top of the mid-mantle’s “transition zone,” 255 miles down, showed the scientists that this environment between the layers of Earth’s core is just as varied as those on the surface. The “transition zone” was far smoother than the roughness on the “660-km boundary.”

 

“They find that Earth’s deep layers are just as complicated as what we observe at the surface,” said seismologist Christine Houser, an assistant professor at the Tokyo Institute of Technology who was not involved in this project.

 

“To find 2-mile (1-3 km) elevation changes on a boundary that is over 400 miles (660 km) deep using waves that travel through the entire Earth and back is an inspiring feat… Their findings suggest that as earthquakes occur and seismic instruments become more sophisticated and expand into new areas, we will continue to detect new small-scale signals which reveal new properties of Earth’s layers.”

 

The ramifications of this newfound data have substantial implications on our understanding of both Earth’s formation and how it operates. The “660-km boundary” essentially divides the mantle — which comprises 84 percent of the planet’s total volume — into its upper and lower halves.

 

Scientists have pondered how instrumental this layer really is for years now, how heat permeates it and travels between layers, and how the hot rocks 2,000 miles below Earth’s surface traverse those areas.

 

There’s been mineralogical and geochemical evidence that suggests the lower and upper mantle are inherently different in terms of their chemical makeup, while other theories argue it to be a cohesive, “well-mixed mantle” with both sides providing key reactions in the heat-transfer cycle.

 

“Our findings provide insight into this question,” said Wu, as her team’s research suggests both sides of this argument are correct in different aspects of their claims. The smoother areas of the discovered boundary might’ve been produced by vertical mixing of the mantle’s chemicals, while the rougher, mountainous parts may have been shaped by areas where the mantle’s two halves don’t mix as harmoniously.

 

Additionally, the Princeton team may have contributed to the scientific debate surrounding tectonic sea floor slabs that push into the mantle’s subduction zones — collisions which have been discovered all over the Pacific Ocean.

 

“It’s easy to assume, given we can only detect seismic waves traveling through the Earth in its current state, that seismologists can’t help understand how Earth’s interior has changed over the past 4.5 billion years,” said Irving.

 

“What’s exciting about these results is that they give us new information to understand the fate of ancient tectonic plates which have descended into the mantle, and where ancient mantle material might still reside. Seismology is most exciting when it lets us better understand our planet’s interior in both space and time.”


MOUNTAINS DEEP INSIDE EARTH

Posted on December 4, 2019 at 6:10 AM Comments comments (0)

April 23, 2019, 3:20 PM CEST

By Corey S. Powell

“We live on a hunk of rock and metal that circles a humdrum star,” Carl Sagan declared in 1996, in one of the astronomer's last interviews.

It’s a simplistic description of Earth, but for a long time many scientists would have gone along with it. There’s no way to explore our planet’s interior directly; the deepest hole ever drilled, e Kola Deep borehole in the Russian Arctic, reaches only 0.2 percent the way to the center. So even the best scientific maps didn’t look much better than your middle-school textbook cartoon showing an outer crust, an inner core and a thick layer called the mantle in between.

But that picture is changing. Researchers such as Barbara Romanowicz at the University of California, Berkeley are using seismic (earthquake) waves to scan our planet’s innards, much like doctors use ultrasound to peer inside patients. What they’re seeing is full of complex detail — not a bland mineral hunk, but a rich and dynamic inner landscape.

The mantle appears to be layered like an onion, with major transitions 250 miles and 410 miles down. At the 410-mile level, researchers recently identified a tremenduous interior montain range, with peaks perhaps even taller than Mount Everest. “Recently, we’ve discovered another change at about 1,000 kilometers [600 miles] depth,” Romanowicz says.

The layers are riven by rising plumes of hot rock. And beneath the plumes, two strange blobs roughly the size of Australia bob atop the core, one beneath Africa and one under the Pacific Ocean.

“More and more, we’re understanding it’s not the standard cartoon picture,” Romanowicz says. “For geodynamicists, it’s a complete revolution.”

Baffled by the blobs

The mantle blobs are of special interest because of their impact on life on the surface. Recent work by Maria Tsekhmistrenko, a seismologist at the University of Oxford, confirms the blobs as a source of the hot mantle plumes — and those plumes can trigger devastating supervolcanic eruptions when they surface.

Her research has found detailed connections between the African blob and the La Reunion mantle plume (currently under Reunion Island, east of Madagascar) that unleashed a wave of eruptions in what is now India 67 million years ago, delivering a one-two punch with the big asteroid impact to kill off the dinosaurs.

Other plumes led to massive volcanoes that created Iceland and which continue to drive the rumbling activity beneath Yellow Stone “There’s a high correlation between these events, climate changes and mass extinctions over the past few hundred million years,” Tsekhmistrenko says.

The nature of the mantle blobs is a persistent mystery, however, largely because the seismic waves studied by Tsekhmistrenko and her colleagues reveal our planet’s inner structure only indirectly. Waves move faster or slower depending on the temperature and composition of the material they pass through. The waves can then be detected by instruments that measure ground motion at the surface, and analyzed to interpret the structures the waves passed through.

Unfortunately, this approach cannot easily distinguish warm, dense material from cooler, lighter stuff. That leaves a lot of room for interpretation.

Sanne Cottaar, a University of Cambridge geophysicist who has mapped the blobs extensively, thinks they’re masses of high-density rock that sank to the bottom of the mantle early in earth's history “They sit on top of the hotter core and will thus heat up over time. The heat then makes them less dense,” she said in an email.

The blobs act like a lid on a pot — until heat from the stove causes what’s inside to boil and spill out, sometimes catastrophically.

Living on an onion planet

That conclusion jibes with Romanowicz’s emerging view of the inner Earth as a series of overlapping, onion-like layers. Scientists used to picture the mantle as a single unit, slowly churning under the influence of heat from the core. A tidy, up-and-down circulation tugged at the crust, they concluded, moving continents and reshaping oceans.

“There is more and more a kind of understanding in the community that it's not just that simple,” Romanowicz says. Instead, each layer of the onion seems to have its own history and evolution. The 410-mile transition is associated with an abrupt change in the structure of the rocks in the mantle. At the 600-mile zone studied by Romanowicz, rising mantle plumes seem to bend and deflect, as if they’ve run into a wall: “That one’s yet to be understood.”

The layers below the mantle show crazy complexity, too. The outer core is a molten iron alloy that flows as readily as water in the ocean. “It also circulates at speeds similar to the ocean and is very turbulent,” Cottaar says.

That turbulence is crucial, since it generates the planet-swaddling magnetic field that protect earth from solar storms and cosmic radiation. Less pleasantly, it can cause sudden hiccups in the field or even complete reversals.

At the very center of Earth is the inner core, a 760-mile-wide ball of iron. Seismic studies show that it consists of iron crystals that are kept solid by tremendous pressure even though it is hotter than the surface of the sun. It’s the youngest major structure inside the planet, having begun freezing out of the liquid part of the core less than a billion years ago. Adding to the weirdness, the inner core rotates slightly faster than the rest of the planet.

“There are many, many questions remaining about the structure of the inner core,” Romanowicz says.

Back to Earth’s beginnings

The ultimate goal is to connect all of Earth’s onion layers to the way our planet formed which in turn will help explain how it became the life-friendly world it is today. David J. Stevenson, a planetary scientist at the California Institute of Technology, traces the story back to a moment 4.5 billion years ago when Earth was struck by a planetary body the size of Mars.

The debris kicked up by that collision is thought to have made the moon, but it also remade our planet.

“The giant impact may have melted or stirred part of the deep Earth. The resulting separation of liquid from solid, and core material from mantle material, set up the state that has evolved to what we see,” Stevenson says. Core, mantle blobs and layering may all derive from that early state.

Romanowicz wants to explore more of our planet’s inner history by building the Pacific array an ocean-based network of motion detectors that would provide a new way to watch seismic waves passing through Earth’s insides. “It’s something that some of us have been working on for 30 years,” she says. “We need it to illuminate the lower mantle.”

For Stevenson, the ultimate dream is to explore downward in the style of Jules Verne. At one point, he even floated the idea of building a probe that could travel all the way to the core “It was a tongue-in-cheek idea, but it sure would be nice to have something to sample the mantle properly,” he says. “I subscribe to the view that you don't know a place until you go there. ‘You’ being a robot, of course.”


NASA receives radio signals from the center of the earth

Posted on March 23, 2017 at 4:25 PM Comments comments (0)

NASA receives radio signals from the center of the earth


AN OUTSTANDING WEBSITE ON THE HOLLOW EARTH

Posted on February 1, 2017 at 5:00 PM Comments comments (0)

AN OUTSTANDING WEBSITE WITH A SECTION ON THE HOLLOW EARTH THEORY

made by David Pratt

Follow this link :

http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/tierra_hueca/inner_earth/inner.htm#contents


This section of the site on "the mysteries of the inner earth" is in my opinion,

one of "if not " the best ever published internet essay concerning the hollow earth theory.

World's largest canyon under the antarctic ice sheet

Posted on January 3, 2017 at 4:05 PM Comments comments (0)

World's largest canyon under the antarctic ice sheet!

An article from Durham university by Dr Steward Jamieson :

https://www.dur.ac.uk/research/news/item/?itemno=26788

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The world's largest canyon may lie under the Antarctic ice sheet, according to analysis of satellite data by a team of scientists, led by Durham University.

 

Although the discovery needs to be confirmed by direct measurements, the previously unknown canyon system is thought to be over 1,000km long and in places as much as 1km deep, comparable in depth to the Grand Canyon in the USA, but many times longer.

 

The canyon system is made up of a chain of winding and linear features buried under several kilometres of ice in one of the last unexplored regions of the Earth’s land surface: Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL) in East Antarctica. Very few measurements of the ice thickness have been carried out in this particular area of the Antarctic, which has led to scientists dubbing it one of Antarctica’s two ‘Poles of Ignorance’.

 

The researchers believe that the landscape beneath the ice sheet has probably been carved out by water and is either so ancient that it was there before the ice sheet grew or it was created by water flowing and eroding beneath the ice.

 

Although not visible to the naked eye, the subglacial landscape can be identified in the surface of the ice sheet.

 

Faint traces of the canyons were observed using satellite imagery and small sections of the canyons were then found using radio-echo sounding data, whereby radio waves are sent through the ice to map the shape of the rock beneath it. These are very large features which appear to reach from the interior of Princess Elizabeth Land to the coast around the Vestfold Hills and the West Ice Shelf.

 

The canyons may be connected to a previously undiscovered subglacial lake as the ice surface above the lake shares characteristics with those of large subglacial lakes previously identified. The data suggests the area of the lake could cover up to 1250km², more than 80 times as big as Lake Windermere in the English Lake District.

 

An airborne survey taking targeted radio-echo sounding measurements over the whole buried landscape is now underway with the aim of unambiguously confirming the existence and size of the canyon and lake system, with results due later in 2016.

 

Lead researcher, Dr Stewart Jamieson, from the Department of Geography at Durham University in the UK, said: “Our analysis provides the first evidence that a huge canyon and a possible lake are present beneath the ice in Princess Elizabeth Land. It’s astonishing to think that such large features could have avoided detection for so long.

 

“This is a region of the Earth that is bigger than the UK and yet we still know little about what lies beneath the ice. In fact, the bed of Antarctica is less well known than the surface of Mars. If we can gain better knowledge of the buried landscape we will be better equipped to understand how the ice sheet responds to changes in climate.”

 

Co-Author Dr Neil Ross from Newcastle University in the UK, said: “Antarctic scientists have long recognised that because the way ice flows, the landscape beneath the ice sheet was subtly reflected in the topography of the ice sheet surface. Despite this, these vast deep canyons and potential large lake had been overlooked entirely.

 

"Our identification of this landscape has only been possible through the recent acquisition, compilation and open availability of satellite data by many different organisations (e.g. NASA, ESA and the US National Snow and Ice Data Center), to whom we are very grateful, and because of some serendipitous reconnaissance radio-echo sounding data acquired over the canyons by the ICECAP project during past Antarctic field seasons.”

 

Co-Author Professor Martin Siegert, from the Grantham Institute at Imperial College London, UK, said: "Discovering a gigantic new chasm that dwarfs the Grand Canyon is a tantalising prospect. Geoscientists on Antarctica are carrying out experiments to confirm what we think we are seeing from the initial data, and we hope to announce our findings at a meeting of the ICECAP2 collaboration, at Imperial, later in 2016.

 

"Our international collaboration of US, UK, Indian, Australian and Chinese scientists are pushing back the frontiers of discovery on Antarctica like nowhere else on earth. But the stability of this understudied continent is threatened by global warming, so all the countries of the world now must rapidly reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and limit the damaging effects of climate change."

 

The research is published in Geology.

 

The research team was made up of scientists from Newcastle University, Imperial College London and Durham University in the UK, University of Texas at Austin, USA, University of Western Australia, Australian Antarctic Division, University of Tasmania in Australia, and the Polar Research Institute of China.

 

The exploration work taking place in Antarctica is the focus of a current exhibition at Durham University’s Palace Green Library, called Antarctica: Explorers, Heroes, Scientists.


Huge never-before-seen lake spotted hiding under Antarctic ice

Posted on January 3, 2017 at 3:40 PM Comments comments (0)
Huge never-before-seen lake spotted
hiding under Antarctic ice

This information comes from New scientist website :


By Andy Coghlan

 

Antarctica may be hiding a large lake under its ice – second only to Lake Vostok in size ­– according to data presented at the European Geosciences Union meeting in Vienna this week.

 

Such subglacial lakes are of great interest because of the possibility that they could harbour unique life forms that may have existed in isolation, locked under ice for millions of years.

 

Although it doesn’t quite beat Lake Vostok‘s 240-kilometre by 60-kilometre size, the new lake is much closer to a research station. This would make it easier to approach and study in detail, says Martin Siegert of Imperial College London, a member of the team that located the putative lake.

 

The team’s claim comes from satellite imagery, in which they identified grooves on the ice surface similar to those present above known subglacial lakes and channels.

 

Ribbon-shaped lake

 

“We’ve seen these strange, linear channels on the surface, and are inferring these are above massive, 1000-kilometre-long channels, and there’s a relatively large subglacial lake there too,” said Siegert.

 

He says the lake is around 100 kilometres long by 10 kilometres wide and is ribbon-shaped.

 

The long channels and canyons that seem to extend from the lake appear to spread for more than 1000 kilometres towards the eastern coast of Antarctica on Princess Elizabeth Land, between Vestfold Hills and the West Ice Shelf.

 

Two channels in particular seem to turn upwards into the ice and may convey water out of the West Ice Shelf into the ocean.

 

“It’s the last un-researched part of Antarctica, so it’s very exciting news, but it’s still tentative pending full confirmation,” says Bryn Hubbard of the University of Aberystwyth, UK.

 

Siegert says that a team of collaborators from China and the US have recently flown over the region and gathered ice penetrating radar data that will likely confirm the existence of the features under the ice.

 

“We’re meeting in May to look at the data,” he said. “It will be a very good test of our hypothesis about the lake and channels.”

Pole of ignorance

 

If the existence of the lake and the channels is confirmed, as Siegert expects, he says it will be a major boost for Antarctic science and for research on subglacial lakes.

 

Just 100 kilometres from the nearest research base – a stone’s throw on Antarctic scales – the new lake is far more accessible than others such as Lake Vostok, which is very remote.

 

That, says Siegert, should make it far easier to conduct vital investigations into the biology of the lake, to find out if it supports species unlike any others on the planet.

 

“It’s really nice to see some new techniques for revealing the characteristics of the last ‘pole of ignorance’,” says Christine Dow, of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the US. “The potential discovery of large canyons and lakes could have a big impact on our understanding of tectonic and hydrological evolution in this part of the ice sheet.”

 



Bill Gates & Paul Allen cruised Antarctica in super yacht

Posted on October 18, 2015 at 10:30 AM Comments comments (0)

           Bill Gates & Paul Allen cruised Antarctica               

on board " The Octopus" super yacht in February 2007


At first, the annoucement doesn't seem so fancy for multi-billionaires throwing a tantrum? however, the Octopus 126 meters long super Yacht owned by Paul Allen boasts amazing amenities such as two helicopters, seven boats, a 10 man submarine and a remote controlled vehicle for crawling on the Ocean floor.

On board a team of security experts, former members of the US Navy Seals Special Forces.

It 's quite intriguing that the wildest inhospitable area such as Antarctica has been the first choice as a destination rather than wonderful tropical reef?

Perhaps the elite has access to some secret areas unknowned to the average citizens?

Such as the inner earth realm...

http://mysterioushollowearth.webs.com/germaninnermaps.htm


Click on the picture below



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Paul Allen yellow submarine

A picture of Paul Allens submarine uploaded onto Twitter by Jane Fonda


Mundus Subterraneus

Posted on October 17, 2015 at 1:20 PM Comments comments (0)

The Blog "Mundus Subterraneus" boasts excellent reviews of several books edited during the last centuries.

A bibliography of literature on the Hollow Earth, subterranean worlds, worlds beyond the poles, the Secret World, the centre of the Earth, the earth's interior, the hollow globe, Symzonia, Geo-Kosmos and the cellular kosmology.

Click on this link : http://subterraneus.blogspot.fr/





Researchers discover an ocean 660 km below the surface of the earth

Posted on October 8, 2015 at 4:05 PM Comments comments (0)

Scientists discover an ocean 400 miles beneath our feet that could fill our oceans three times over


After decades of theorizing and discussing possibilities, scientists report to finally have discovered a large ocean of water inside the mantle of Earth, and they pint out that it is a large water “tank” that could fill the oceans on Earth three times.

This incredible discovery suggests that the surface water of the planet came from within Earth, as part of a “complete water cycle on the planet” instead of the dominant theory proposed that water arrived to Earth by icy comets that passed by the planet millions of years ago.

Scientists are learning a lot about the composition of our planet even today. And the more they manage to understand, the more accurately will predictions regarding climate change, weather and sea levels get since all of the mentioned above is closely related to the tectonic activity that vibrates incessantly beneath our feet.

 

This study was performed by researchers and geophysical scientists in the United States and Canada who used data obtained from the USArray- which is a set of hundreds of seismometers located throughout the United States to constantly “listen” to the movements of the Earths mantle and core.

 

So researchers believe that the water on Earth may have come from within the planet and was “pushed” to the surface thanks to geological activity.



 

An article published in the journal “Nature” states that researchers have found a small diamond that points to the existence of a vast water reservoir beneath the mantle of the Earth, approximately 600 kilometers beneath our feet.

 

Ringwoodite is a form of the mineral peridot, believed to exist in large quantities under high pressures in the transition zone.

 

Ringwoodite has been found in meteorites but, until now, no terrestrial sample has ever been unearthed because scientists haven’t been able to conduct fieldwork at extreme depths.

 

It is named after Australian geologist Ted Ringwood, who theorised that a special mineral was bound to be created in the transition zone because of the ultra-high pressures and temperatures there.


The lead author of the study Graham Pearson, member of the University of Alberta, Canada said, “One reason why the Earth is a dynamic planet, is the presence of water inside. The water changes depending on the way the world works.”

 

After numerous studies and complex calculations to double check their theories, researchers believe they have found a gigantic pool of water located in the transition zone between the layers of the upper and lower mantle – a region which sits somewhere between 400 and 660 km below the surface.



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The 1450 Fra Mauro map of the world

Posted on January 3, 2015 at 4:15 PM Comments comments (0)

The Fra Mauro map of the World "1450" did left its home in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana in Venice for an exhibition to the national library of Australia which was held from 7 November 2013 to 10 March 2014.

National Library of Australia

It began on a canal in Venice and ended via a specially deconstructed National Library of Australia window. It was too big to come through the front door, but one of the rarest maps in the world, the 1450 Fra Mauro Map of the World, has finally taken pride of place in our exhibition Mapping Our World: Terra Incognita to Australia. Years of planning went into bringing this 2.4 metre square treasure, "the greatest of all medieval maps", to Canberra—not only because it had to come across the world, but because in its 600-year-life, it had never left its home in the Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana in Venice for an exhibition.

We produced videos to tell the story of the map and its journey from Venice to Canberra:

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Marshall B Gardner Geographical Apparatus

Posted on December 30, 2014 at 8:10 AM Comments comments (0)

The Geographical Apparatus was invented by Marshall B Gardner and it displayed both the outside world and inner earth. The M.B.Gardner Geographical application was filed in November 25th 1912.


GEOGRAPHICAL APPARATUS - PATENT US1096102 A

Click on the picture


Hollow earth music tracks

Posted on December 23, 2014 at 6:40 AM Comments comments (0)

Hollow earth music tracks

Uroboros Records is very proud to release Hollow Earth, a new compilation coming direct from the centre of the planet, where intraterrestrial beings are constantly watching us. Compiled by DJ Moika, this is a deep progressive psytrance journey for the night-time hours with contributions from Australia, Brazil, Germany, and Israel. Mastered by Andreh Torres @ Rdstudio, Brazil, with artwork by Bruno Azalim.

CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO DOWNLOAD THE TRACKS





The other globe

Posted on December 23, 2014 at 12:45 AM Comments comments (0)
The Other Globe team



Join The Other Globe on facebook 
click on the facebook logo


The other globe team has set up a unique line of products that visualize efficiently the Hollow earth. Featuring outstanding details, ones can choose either to display it on a desk or on a wall. It seems that  the line of products hasn't reached a wide audience and that the project has been discontinued meanwhile which is a shame because it looks amazingly well done and thought !

As hollow earth enthusiasts, it is one of our purpose to promote these kind of project...
Go ahead and promote their products on your website, facebook, blog, friends, family... Spread the word.

THE OTHER GLOBE





THE OTHER MAP (1000 X 1618 mm)



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